Planet Before Profit

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28th Oct 2020- Spanish power company Iberdrola SA and fertilizer maker Fertiberia SA have proposed a 1.8 billion-euro ($2.1 billion) plan to turn the country into an exporter of ammonia made exclusively with renewable energy.

“Producing ammonia through green hydrogen is the most efficient way for long-term and large-scale storage of energy,” said Fertiberia Chairman Javier Goni at a presentation in Madrid. 

“This is allowing us to dream that green hydrogen could be exported through ammonia so we could move renewable energy from one continent to another in a safe and efficient way.”

The European Union wants green hydrogen to replace oil, natural gas and coal as a fuel source for heavy industry. Developing the necessary technology, which isn’t yet economically viable without government support, is seen as essential for the EU to cut greenhouse gas emissions and become climate-neutral by 2050.  announced their intention to vastly expand their existing green ammonia plans, from a 20 MW pilot plant that will be operational next year, to a full 800 MW of electrolytic hydrogen production by 2027. The investment cost is estimated at EUR 1.8 billion ($2.1 billion).

This would decarbonize 25% of all the hydrogen now produced in Spain, and meet 20% of the country’s target to install 4 GW of renewable hydrogen by 2030. As the headline claims, it would “place Spain at the forefront of green hydrogen in Europe.”

Sourcehttps://www.ammoniaenergy.org/articles/green-ammonia-in-australia-spain-and-the-united-states/

Another multi $Billion investment in the green hydrogen economy is Nikola's meteoric start-up success having just secured more than $14bn in pre-order reservations for its vehicles, while its investors continue to queue up to join its transport technology revolution.

Nikola trucks have a range of 650 miles (1,000km) depending upon driving conditions, and a 15-minute refill time, totally zero carbon from wheel to wheel and the fuel cells themselves are 100% recyclable. This unique combination of attributes has resulted in orders with some of the largest conglomerates in the world, including Ryder, US Express and Anheuser-Busch.

Learn more https://www.h2-view.com/story/driving-towards-a-greener-future-nikolas-freight-expectations/ 

On 8th September 2020 General Motors invested $2 Billion for an 11% equity share in Nikola ensuring the rapid certification and production of this remarkable technology.

Learn more  https://nikolamotor.com/press_releases/nikola-and-general-motors-form-strategic-partnership-94 

Hydrogen - The lightest fuel for the heaviest loads

Just 5kg of Hydrogen can power a Hydrogen Fuel cell (HFC) car for 500Km, equivalent petrol or diesel cars need approx 50kg of fuel and a battery car needs 500Kg of Lithium / Cobalt batteries to travel the same distance.

In automotive applications saving weight is critical and the superior energy density of Hydrogen is a fundamental advantage.

Diesel has an energy density of 45.5 mega-joules per kilogram (MJ/kg) and hydrogen has an energy density of  120 MJ/kg, almost triple. In electrical terms, the energy density of hydrogen is equal to 33.6 kWh of usable energy per kg, versus diesel which holds 12–14 kWh per kg.

1 kg of Hydrogen in a fuel cell-powered electric motor contains approximately the same energy as 4.5 litres (1 gallon) of diesel. A Nikola HFC truck gets the equivalent of 12 to 15 miles per gallon (mpg), double the USA average for a diesel truck which is around 7 mpg.

In the UK diesel is around £6.00 per gallon (£1.35 per litre) and the latest 2020 analysis from Bloomberg New Energy Finance suggests the production price for hydrogen could be as low as £1.15 ($1.40) per kilogram by 2030. This means customers could fill up with zero carbon Hydrogen and get over 500 Km range for just £25.00.

By 2023 Norway aims to have​ 1,000 Nikola Hydrogen-powered trucks on its roads and over 100 Hydrogen refuelling stations.

Learn more

This in-depth analysis of Hydrogen Fuel Cells Vs lithium/cobalt batteries explains the advantages of fuel cells.

Learn more  https://blog.ballard.com/electric-vehicle-battery-supply-chain 

Bloomberg energy predicts 80% cost reduction in hydrogen by 2030

https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2019-08-21/cost-of-hydrogen-from-renewables-to-plummet-next-decade-bnef 


Siemens explains why they are rapidly developing the Hydrogen economy infrastructure.  https://blog.ballard.com/hydrogen-train-technology  

" We could see hydrogen fuel cell systems that cost four times less than lithium-ion batteries, as well as providing a much longer range."

David Antonelli - Chair of Physical Chemistry at Lancaster University

Learn more https://www.cnbc.com/2019/02/21/musk-calls-hydrogen-fuel-cells-stupid-but-tech-may-threaten-tesla.html

Green hydrogen and green ammonia are two sides of the same coin and the symbiotic relationship between them enables low cost, efficient energy transport and storage.

https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2018/07/ammonia-renewable-fuel-made-sun-air-and-water-could-power-globe-without-carbon



Hyundai Nexo Hydrogen Fuel Cell vehicle

Power without Pollution 

Electric vehicles are the future and the best option for providing that electricity is Hydrogen Fuel Cells (HFC) which offer genuine 500 Km range, refuelling times of under 5 minutes for cars and 10 minutes for HGV's and busses. HFC have almost double the working life of lithium batteries and none of the end of life disposal issues as HFC are 100% recyclable, use no toxic chemicals and are safe to handle at all stages of the process.  There is strong consumer support for Hydrogen as it does not compromise our lifestyles and is easily added to existing fuel stations forecourts.

There is mounting concern regarding the human and environmental costs of mining lithium, cobalt and rare earth metals for batteries, with an increasing number of major pollution incidents being reported.

Learn more https://www.instituteforenergyresearch.org/renewable/the-environmental-impact-of-lithium-batteries/ 

The lithium extraction process uses a lot of water—approximately 500,000 gallons per metric ton of lithium

In Australia and North America, lithium is mined from rock using chemicals to extract it into a useful form. In Nevada, researchers found impacts on fish as far as 150 miles downstream from a lithium processing operation.

Lithium extraction harms the soil and causes air contamination. In Argentina’s Salar de Hombre Muerto, residents believe that lithium operations contaminated streams used by humans and livestock and for crop irrigation.

Learn more

https://www.ivl.se/download/18.5922281715bdaebede9559/1496046218976/C243+The+life+cycle+energy+consumption+and+CO2+emissions+from+lithium+ion+batteries+.pdf

If recycling is attempted, it generates high pollution, consumes a lot of water and is very expensive as the process consumes approx 6 times more energy than it takes to mine new lithium.

Detailed analysis of wheel to wheel emissions Tesla Vs a standard diesel car in USA reveals that the Tesla emits more CO2 than diesel in most USA states, depending on the energy mix to power national grid.

Learn more

https://www.renewableenergyworld.com/ugc/articles/2018/08/30/will-evs-save-us-from-global-warming-are-we-on-the-right-track.html 

https://www.edie.net/news/5/EV-batteries-could-be--huge-waste-mountain-of-the-future---researchers-warn/ 

https://www.wired.co.uk/article/lithium-batteries-environment-impact

 "ROI from Green Hydrogen is excellent with £1.00 returned to the economy for every 18 pence invested"     Councillor Phillip Bell - Aberdeen Council.

Why do Grizzly bears not chase mice?

Because a 500Kg bear burns more energy chasing a 30g mouse than it gains from eating it. Balancing this energy out / energy in law of nature governs all species behaviour and the physics applies equally to all of mankind's machinery and engines. We all understand the obscene waste and pollution involved when the super-rich fly across the Atlantic for a weekend shopping trip. But do we think about the energy wasted when we drive a few miles to the shops for a couple of bags of shopping?

A typical fossil fuel family car consumes approx 38 million joules of energy (1 litre of diesel contains 38 million joules) on a shopping trip of approx 15 Km and you bought enough food for 1 adult for 7 days that food would contain approx 70,000 joules of energy. In this example, we are burning approx 542 times more energy than we are gaining from the food.

Then we must account for the air or road miles of the food production, transport, the supermarket's energy consumption and packaging and waste disposal. The real world multiple results in us burning approx 1,000 to 1,500 times more energy to "hunt and gather" our food than we derive from it, and this assumes we eat 100% of the food, in reality we waste approx 30% of our food. This makes our modern agriculture one of the most unsustainable and wasteful activities in history. The above is a great example of where Hydrogen can solve multiple sector problems, from private cars and public transport to agricultural machinery, food production and transport, commercial energy, packaging production and recycling.


The second-generation Toyota Mira Hydrogen fuel cell car is in its final stages of design and will be available to order later in 2020

 Learn more https://www.toyota.co.uk/world-of-toyota/stories-news-events/2019/new-mirai-concept 

1,000 Km range, 4 mins refuelling and zero carbon

Grove Auto "Granite" and "Obsidian hydrogen fuel cell cars are almost production ready

Learn more https://www.grove-auto.com/obsidian  

Hydrogen on the high seas 

In their joint report on de-carbonising shipping, Lloyds of London and the University Maritime Advisory Sevices (UMAS) concluded that producing Green Hydrogen from electrolysis and combining it with nitrogen to make zero carbon ammonia is a viable and economical zero-carbon shipping fuel solution.

Hydrogen was less than half the price of methanol or biodiesel options and less than one-third of the price of lithium battery power.

Learn more https://www.lr.org/en-gb/latest-news/lr-and-umas-release-new-zero-emission-vessels-transition-pathways-study

World-leading civil and electrical engineering group, ABB shipping propulsion director states -"Hydrogen fuel cells are relatively easy to connect with current marine drive systems, they are highly scalable and as modern marine drives are already electric, we only need to exchange the power plant"

https://new.abb.com/news/detail/21291/the-future-fuel-picture-more-than-just-hydrogen

“The Canadian Navy has had fuel cells in their submarines since 1993" This fact alone demystifies hydrogen as high risk – the last place you want a dangerous fuel is on board is in a steel tube hundreds of meters under the sea.

https://new.abb.com/news/detail/7658/hydrogen-on-the-high-seas-welcome-aboard

Hydrogen powered luxury yacht launching 2020 

Decarbonising shipping is essential if Europe and the UK are to hit our carbon reduction targets. European shipping emitted over 139m tonnes of CO2 in 2018 – equal to CO2 from 68 million cars and the volume of goods shipped is forecast to rise by 50% over the next decade.

Learn more https://www.forbes.com/sites/mikescott/2019/06/28/shipping-sector-comes-under-increasing-pressure-to-cut-its-carbon-footprint/#21c67d701487 

There is a willingness to change and the shipping industry has recognised that green hydrogen and green ammonia together make a compelling economic and environmental case as a fuel and carrier solution.

Learn more: http://ieei.or.jp/2019/11/expl191107/#more-52887